Final Neolithic Age (4000-3100 B.c.)

First traces of habition in Voidokoilia, Koryphasio, Prophit Ilias in Pylia, Katavothra in the region of Chora, Cave of Koufiero.

Early Bronze Age (3100-2050 B.C.)

Important settlement at Voidokoilia and in the area of Romanos. Megaron at Akovitika, in the region of Kalamata.

Middle Bronze Age (2050-1680 B.C)

Extensive settlement on the acropolis of Malthi, settlement traces and a tumulus at Voidokoilia, funerary tumulus at Aghios Ioannis, Papoulia.

Late Bronze Age (Mycenaean Period, 1680-1060 B.C.)

Mycenaean settlements and establishments, tholos and chamber tombs in great numbers throughout the entire Messenia. Thriving of the Mycenaean kingdom of Pylos.

1300 B.C.: Founding of the great Mycenaean Palace of the Neleids and the Palace of Nestor at Upper Englianos. Use of Linear B.

1200 B.C.: Burning and destruction of the Palace, abandonment of Upper Englianos and all the Mycenaean settlements through the entire kingdom of Nestor.

Early Geometric Period (1060-900 B.C.)

Doric invasion. Almost no evidence of habition from the area of Upper Englianos and Nichoria up to the Geometric Period.

Geometric Period (900-700 B.C.)

Scattered burials and use of Mycenaean tombs.

First Messenian War (743-724 B.C.): Subjugation of the messenias to the Lacedaemonians. The Messenians in a state of helotry. Absence of monumental material remains.

Archaic Period (700-480 B.C.)

Sparse habitation and few settlement remains in the entire Messenia.

Second Messenian War (685-667 B.C.): Revolt of the messenian helots. Victory of the Lacedaemonians and flight of many Messeniansη της Σικελίας, η οποία μετονομάζεται σε Μεσσήνη.

Classical Period (480-323 B.C.)

The large number of monumental remains betrays the development of large cities. Eminent is the role of Messene, the first capital of the free Messenian state.

Third Messenian War (464-454 B.C.): General uprising of the Messenian helots and their utter defeat by the Lacedaemonians.

465-456 B.C.: Flight of the Messenian helots to Naupactus, aided by the Athenians

The Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.)

• 425 B.C.: Battle of Sphakteria. Defeat and capture of the Lacedaemonians by the Athenians.

• 408 B.C.: Renewed occupation of Pylos by the Lacedaemonias.

• 399 B.C.: Expusion of the Messenians from Naupactus to Reggio of Italy and Eusperides at Cyrenaica.

Founding of Messene (369 B.C.):

• 369 B.C.: The independent Messenian state is founded by Epaminondas following his victory at Leuktra (371 B.C.) against the Lacedaemonians. Messene bocomes the state's capital

Hellenistic Period (323-31 B.C.)

The development of Messene continues. Expansion and organisation of the city's building core.

191 π.Χ.: Participation of Messenia in the Achaean Confederacy.

146 π.Χ.: The Messenians become independent of the Achaean Confederacy as a consequence of the latter's war with Rome.

Roman Rule (31 B.C.-330 B.C.)

The thriving of the city is related to the erection of new monumental public and other buildings. Economic recovery of Messenia due to special privileges granted to it by the Romans. Pylos becomes autonomous and acquires its own coinage.

176 A.D.: Visit of the traveller Pausanias to Messenia.

Mid-2nd c. A.D.: Trajan proclaims Methonian an independent city.

Early Byzantine Period (330-8th c. B.C.)

Messenia remains a part of the Province of Ahaea ("Prefectum Illyricum Orientale") with its capital at Corith. Gradual spread of Christianism. First Bishoprics

550/1 A.C.: Destructive earthquake in the region

7th-8th c. A.C.: Arab and Slav invasions in the Peloponnese. Establishment of the Slavs, mainly in the mountainous region of Tayghetos.

695 A.C.: Administrative subordination of Messenia to the newly founded "Theme of Greece", with its seat at Coritnth.

733 μ.Χ.: Ecclesiastical detachment of Illyricum Orientale from the Pope's jurisdiction and its further subordination to the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople.

Middle Byzantine Period (9th c.-1204 B.C.)

Consolidation of Byzantine power in the region. Flourishing of the countryside and development of export trade, mainly with Italy. First monastic complexes.

805 A.C.: Administrative transfer of Messenia to the newly founded "Theme of the Peloponnese", with its seat at Corinth.

872-881 A.C.: Attacks by Arabs from Crete and Sicily along the western coasts of the Peloponnese. Methoni and Pylos are severely tested.

9th-10th c. A.C.: Rule by the Slavic tribes of the Melingoi and Ezerites in Tayghetos.

10th c. A.D.: Messene is renamed "Vourkano".

970-998 A.D.: Missionary activity of Hosios Nikon "Metanoeite" (St Nikon the Repenter). Strengthening of the native Christian elements and conversion of the Slavs to Christianity.

11th c. A.D.: unification of the Theme of the Peloponnese with the Theme of Greece, with seat at Thebes. Venetian trading posts at Methoni and Koroni.

Late 11th c. A.D.-12th c. A.D.: Granting of special commercial privileges to the Venetians by the Emperor Alexios Komnenos (1081-1118).

1154 A.C.: Visit of the Arab-Sicilian geographer Idrisi to Messenia (Methoni, Koroni, Kalamata-"Maitta", Kyparissia-"Arkadia"). Kalamata and Kyparissia are referred to as flourishing cities.

Late Byzantine Period (1204-1453 B.C.)

Fall of Constantinople to the Crusaders in 1204. Creation of the Frankish Principate of Achaea, with its seat at Andravida. Occupation of the Byzantine castles of Kyparissia ("Arkadia"), Kalamata, Methoni, Koroni. Construction of new forts by the Crusaders to confront attacks by the local population

1209 A.C.: Treaty of Sapienza. Surrender of Pylia, with its important harbors of Methoni and Koroni, to the Venetians.

1262 A.C.: Defeat of the Franks by the Byzantines at the battle of Pelagonia. Establishment of the Despote of Morea.

1453 A.C.: Capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks. Overthrow of the Byzantine Empire.

1460 A.C.: Overthrow of the Despotate of Morea by the Ottoman Turks.

1500 A.C.: Occupation of the Methoni and Koroni castles by the Ottomans.